State of Colorado in USA. Check out the location and lots more information. Highest peaks and highest huts.
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Colorado ([ˌkɑləˈɹɑːdoʊ̯] or [ˌkɑləˈɹæɾoʊ̯]) is a state in the western to central part of the United States of America. As part of the Mountain States, crossed by the Rocky Mountain range, Colorado is the highest state in the USA with an average elevation of 2073 meters.
The “Centennial State,” Centennial State, emerged from the Colorado Territory, which was at its peak in 1861, in 1876, exactly 100 years after the United States’ Declaration of Independence founded during the Gold Rush in the Front Range. The capital and economic center is Denver, in the metropolitan area of which more than half of Colorado’s five million inhabitants live. Other important cities are Colorado Springs and Fort Collins. The state got its name from the Colorado River, so named by the area’s former Spanish rulers because of the reddish (Spanish: ) mud it carries.
The state of Colorado is located in the central to western part of the United States and is surrounded by a total of seven states. Its northern neighbor is Wyoming, to the east Colorado meets the prairie states of Nebraska and Kansas, and on the southeastern border Colorado is separated from Texas by the relatively small strip of land of the Oklahoma Panhandles. While the border with New Mexico runs to the south, Colorado does not share a border with the state of Arizona in the southwest, but only meets it at its southwesternmost corner. Together with New Mexico, Arizona and Utah, the western neighbors, Colorado forms the so-called “Four Corner States”; this phenomenon, unique in the United States, was marked with a monument at that location. Along with Wyoming and Utah, Colorado is one of the three states in the USA that have practically no natural state borders, but are almost exclusively defined along lines of longitude and latitude. Colorado extends approximately rectangularly from about 37°N to 41°N and 102°W to 109°W.
Colorado is traversed in the central and western parts of the state by the mountain ranges of the San Juan Mountains in the southwest, the Sawatch Range in the center and the two eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains, Front and Sangre de Cristo Range, are among the most important mountain ranges. They include more than 50 peaks with more than 4000 meters in altitude – including Mount Elbert, the highest mountain in the entire Rocky Mountains at 4401 meters – and enclose some larger valley basins. The approximately 2800 km ² large is located entirely in Park County and includes a wide grassy landscape between the Front and Mosquito Range. In south-central Colorado, the San Juan Mountains and Sangre de Cristo Range enclose the . The largest alpine valley basin in the world is no longer counted among the Rocky Mountains, but among those located predominantly in New Mexico.
In the west, the Rocky Mountains mostly end before the state border of Utah and merge into a high plateau that reaches as far as Arizona – the so-called Colorado Plateau. Within Colorado, this includes the area in the southwest from the foothills of the San Juan Mountains to the New Mexico border. From the southwest corner of the state, the plateau extends along the Utah border to other Rocky Mountain ranges in the east and finally ends in its northern course at the Uinta Mountains in northwestern Colorado. Beyond this mountain range is the southern end of the Wyoming Basin – the steppe landscape that runs through the entire neighboring state of Wyoming to Montana. Colorado’s share is limited to the part in the north-west between the Uinta and Elkhead Mountains and the part in north-central Colorado surrounded by the Park Range, Rabbit Ears Range and Medicine Bow Mountains.
East of the Rocky Mountains begins the , a huge steppe landscape that runs through the entire center of the United States and is referred to as within Colorado because of its high location here. From the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, they drop continuously from around 1900 meters and form the lowest point in Colorado at 1021 meters on the Kansas border – near Arkansas.
Three of the most important North American rivers, each more than 2000 kilometers long, have their headwaters on the continental watershed that runs through the entire Colorado: the Colorado, the Arkansas and the Rio Grande. North and South Platte are also important; with the exception of the Colorado, which drains into the Pacific, they all originate on the eastern side of the Continental Divide and flow towards the Atlantic.
In and around Rocky Mountain National Park are many of Colorado’s 2183 natural lakes; Just outside the park boundary is Grand Lake, already the state’s largest natural lake at just 1.5 square miles. It is connected by a canal to the two larger reservoirs and that together form the within the Arapaho National Recreation Area. Within Colorado, only Lake Granby is larger than Lake Granby at Gunnison in the central to southwestern part of the country. Also in the southeast of the country is an important water reservoir for the region there.
Colorado has warm, sometimes hot summers and cold, snowy winters (continental climate). Above all, the difference between day and night is sometimes extreme. In summer, despite the high daytime temperatures, it can get very cold at night. Precipitation (approx. 400-500 mm annually) is distributed throughout the year, with a slight excess in summer, when the air is usually very dry with 50% humidity.
Hundreds of houses were destroyed in severe forest fires in December 2021. The authorities had previously called on tens of thousands of people to flee. The cities of Louisville and Superior, 20 miles northwest of Denver, had to be evacuated. About 34,000 residents were affected. Driven by winds with peak speeds of up to 169 kilometers per hour, the flames engulfed parts of the city and destroyed around 580 buildings, a hotel and a shopping center. Scientists attributed the increasingly unpredictable extreme weather in the USA to man-made climate change. Both forest fires and storms are increasing in intensity and causing high levels of damage.
AD 400 the western reaches of the Fremont Indian culture extended into eastern Colorado. 1000 years before the arrival of the first white people in Colorado, representatives of the Anasazi culture settled in what is now Mesa Verde National Park in the far southwest of the state, and built impressive buildings here, such as the so-called Cliff Palace. Historically, Cheyenne and Ute Indians lived in the region. The Navajo sphere of influence extended into Colorado to the southwest, and the Kiowa to the southeast.
Discovery and conquest by Spanish and French
Colorado was probably first explored by the Spanish in the early 17th century. It is disputed whether the Spaniard Francisco Vásquez de Coronado on his expedition from Mexico to today’s Kansas (1540-1542) already touched the eastern plains of today’s Colorado and was therefore the first European on the soil of today’s state. Also mentioned in this context is Juan de Oñate, who led an expedition from New Mexico to Kansas around 1600. However, the southeastern part of present-day Colorado was not claimed for the Spanish kingdom until 1706 by Juan de Uribarri. The territorial claim collided with the economic interests of the French, although they primarily promoted colonization on the Saint Lawrence River (today Canada).
After the defeat in the French and Indian War (1754-1760) against the British Empire, France had to cede all areas west of the Mississippi to Great Britain, with the exception of New Orleans, which in turn – as compensation for the conquest of Florida – ceded the central part of North America (which later became the Louisiana Territory) to the Spanish. This caused tensions between Spain and France, which only ended on October 1, 1800 under pressure from Napoleon I and the associated reconquest of the Central American areas by France. A little later, in 1803, the territory finally fell to the United States through the so-called (Louisiana Acquisition).
While the western part of today’s Colorado – the southern Rocky Mountains and parts of the Colorado Plateau – remained undisputed territory of the Spaniards (New Spain), the first explorations by the Americans began in the east in 1806. A first deployment of American soldiers led by Zebulon Pike led from Fort Bellefontaine (near Saint Louis) to the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains (Front Range), which were reached by the end of 1806. The exploration focused on the Arkansas catchment area, which was viewed by the Americans as the southern border with New Spain, although no official boundary line was ever agreed between France and Spain. It was only officially defined in 1819 in the so-called , in which the western border was also agreed with the continental divide in addition to the Arkansas in the south. This was followed in 1820 by the second major expedition, led by Stephen H. Long, which focused on the South Platte River and the region around present-day Denver.
First settlement by Europeans
Although in the years that followed Pike and Long’s initial explorations, more and more fur trappers made their way into what is now Colorado, but it wasn’t until the 1830s that a larger settlement began with the establishment of . Built in 1833 on Arkansas (near modern-day La Junta) by William and Charles Bent, the fort quickly became an important trading post between white and indigenous people. In the meantime, New Mexican settlers settled between the San Juan mountains and lived from agriculture. With San Luis they founded on June 21, 1851 the first permanent settlement in what later became Colorado.
Meanwhile, from 1850 onwards, the political division of the land acquired in the east and the newly acquired areas from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific coast after the war with Mexico (1846-1848) began. The so-called Kansas-Nebraska Act established the boundary between the territories of Nebraska and Kansas. The latter extended beyond today’s western boundary and occupied most of the High Plains between South Platte and the Arkansas River up to the Front Range. In the mountains, the Utah Territory, founded in 1850, joined, while the remaining areas of today’s Colorado were parts of Nebraska (northeast) and New Mexico (south). The Colorado Territory, on the other hand, was not formed until 1861 with the gold rush in .
Gold Rush and Silver Boom
While relations between whites and Native Americans had been mostly friendly in the region until then – after initial reservations – this changed from the early 1850s when reports of gold discoveries in California led to ever-increasing streams of settlers through the Great Plains and led the Rocky Mountains. When in June 1858 gold was found for the first time at the confluence of South Platte and Cherry Creek (today Denver) and prospectors founded the first larger settlements on the river and in the surrounding mountains, tensions between the white and indigenous population increased. In the mountains, the number of mining camps grew steadily and the region around Black Hawk, Central City, Nevadaville and Idaho Springs became a center of the gold rush around the year 1860.
Denver City, which was founded in 1858 and which was incorporated into the neighboring city of Auraria two years later and now had around 6,000 inhabitants, recorded the greatest growth in the region, which at that time still belonged to Kansas. The rapidly increasing population spurred plans to establish the region as a separate territory. This finally happened on February 28, 1861, when US President James Buchanan signed a corresponding law in the US Congress and appointed William Gilpin as the first governor. The young Colorado territory was divided into 17 districts and had around 25,000 inhabitants when it was founded; The capital was initially Colorado City. However, Denver City, which was only renamed “Denver” in 1865, remained more important, even though the city had to be rebuilt after a major fire in 1863. In Golden, which replaced Colorado City as the territory’s capital in 1862, Denver was designated the new capital of Colorado in 1867. Although, it soon became apparent, Cherry Creek wasn’t the vein of gold it had hoped for, Denver benefited from the wealth of nearby Front Range towns. At the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, the capital consolidated its central position with the consistent expansion of the rail network in the early 1870s. The first milestones were the connection to the network of the , which expanded its rail network from Kansas City to Denver in 1870, and the construction of the , which connected to the in Cheyenne (Wyoming). Denver’s connection to southwestern Colorado followed in 1871 with the construction of the . In 1872 the route leading to the neighboring gold rush towns of Black Hawk and Central City was completed.
In 1879 the erupted in Colorado and Leadville and Aspen became the most important mining towns during this time. Their development was aided by the further expansion of the , which continued its network in the 1870s from Pueblo through to Leadville and finally reached the city in 1881. By then, the economically up-and-coming Colorado had long since achieved independence. While many initially had concerns about higher taxes and too much interference on the part of Washington, the Colorado Territory joined the United States on August 1, 1876 as the 38th state while retaining its previous borders.
Expulsion of the Indians
The founding of the Colorado Territory in 1861 and the proliferation of settlement along Cherry Creek was an affront to the Cheyenne and Arapaho, who had been granted the area around what would become Denver in (1851). Their resettlement in the Arkansas river valleys provoked backlash from Native Americans, ranging from stagecoach robberies to the murder of isolated settlers. On November 29, 1864, in an unprecedented retaliatory attack, troops under Commander John M. Chivington broke into an unfortified Indian village and murdered 133 men, women and children. The cruel actions of the US military in that briefly sensitized the white population to the interests of the Indians, but also stood in the way of peaceful coexistence. The ensuing military conflicts lasted about five years and ended after the battles of Beecher Island (September 1868; near present-day Wray) and Summit Springs (July 1869) with the surrender of the Cheyenne and Arapaho, who recently formed an alliance with some other Indian tribes against the whites had formed. As early as 1867, a large-scale resettlement of Indians from the Colorado Plains to reservations in Oklahoma had begun, which was considered largely complete by 1874.
The Ute Indians, who live in the mountains and have not been fundamentally hostile to the US government to date, also saw themselves exposed to repression after gold and silver were discovered in the 1870s and were divided into a small peace treaty in 1880 Mesa Region Reservation, bordering New Mexico.
20th. and 21st Century
Colorado was hit hard by the economic crisis that began in 1893 (; the value of silver fell). In Denver, twelve banks suddenly had to be closed and countless businesses had to give up. Ambitious plans by the railway companies were stopped and the closure of many mines caused unemployment to rise rapidly. Many former mining towns fell into disrepair in the 20th century, while better developed towns found new sources of income in tourism. In particular, Aspen, Breckenridge and Vail in central Colorado and Telluride in southwestern Colorado have become popular ski resorts. With the founding of the Rocky Mountain National Park in 1915, the first major tourist attraction was created in the Denver catchment area. In the state capital itself, under Mayor Robert W. Speer, a systematic upgrading of the cityscape based on the model of the . The beautification measures, which lasted almost 15 years, served not least to raise the morale of those Denverans who lived in the state capital under really miserable conditions.
In 1977 the first Special Olympics Winter Games took place in Steamboat Springs.
On April 20, 1999, the Columbine High School shooting near Littleton killed 15 and injured 24 others. The act caused a worldwide sensation, triggered numerous debates about the possible causes of youth violence and is considered a turning point in American culture due to its far-reaching consequences. On July 12, 2012, the city of Aurora made international headlines when 12 people were shot dead and 58 others injured in the Aurora rampage during a theatrical showing of the film.
In the summer of 2002, Colorado experienced the most devastating wildfire in state history when an illegal campfire in Pike National Forest started the so-called. The fire destroyed around 55,000 hectares of forest and was so threatening in the greater Denver area that individual suburbs had to be evacuated for a short time. A natural disaster of a completely different kind finally happened in December 2006, when the state was caught in a massive blizzard just before the Christmas holidays. The most important ones had to be closed temporarily and brought public life in the greater Denver area to a standstill. One of the front range region’s worst snowstorms claimed four lives in Colorado.
Colorado has a population of 5,029,196 according to the 2010 Census, of which 81.3% White, 4% Black or African American, 2.8% Asian American and 1.1% Native American, Other 7.2%. 20.7% describe themselves as Hispanics. In 2017, the population was estimated at 5,607,154.
With a population increase of approximately 8.4% (US: 5.3%) from the April 2000 census to July 2005, Colorado was above the national average. By the year 2030, more than seven million inhabitants are expected.
The (DOLA; Department of Local Government) expects above-average development in particular from the districts of Douglas and El Paso, which are south of Denver. Douglas County’s population has more than quadrupled since the 1990 census (population 60,391) and is expected to increase to about half a million people by around 2030. Meanwhile, El Paso County, which surrounds Colorado Springs, will have a little less than a million residents, according to DOLA forecasts, making it the most populous county in Colorado. Assuming that Denver is not united with neighboring cities within its metropolitan area, the current state capital would then no longer be the largest city in the state.
To the west, good development is forecast for the I-70 service area counties – particularly Garfield and Mesa around the towns of Glenwood Springs and Grand Junction. In the east of the country, on the other hand, there will be no significant changes; in the southeastern part – apart from the nearby small towns on the Arkansas – a decline in population is even expected.
According to the 2000 Census, German-Americans make up the largest group within the Colorado population at 22%, followed by Mexican-Americans (18%) and Irish and English-born at 12% each.
The official language of Colorado is (American) English, which is also spoken by around 85% of the population. The statistical evaluation of the census from the year 2000 showed that a large part of the population speaks Spanish, especially in southern Colorado, which is heavily influenced by Mexico. In the district of Costilla, they even make up the majority with a share of around 57%, but also in the districts of Alamosa, Conejos, Lake, Rio Grande and Saguache at least a quarter of the residents speak Spanish in the family environment. It is the most widely spoken language in Colorado after English – with around 420,000 speakers out of a total of four million (over 5 years old) in the state. In addition, less than one percent each speak German or French.
In Colorado, 65% of the population is Christian. Of these, 44% of people belong to Protestant denominations, of which 23% of believers belong to evangelical and 19% to mainline churches. 19% of the population is Roman Catholic. The largest religious denominations in Colorado in 2000 were the Roman Catholic Church with 752,505, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) with 92,326 and the Southern Baptist Convention with 85,083 followers.
Colorado’s largest city with around 700,000 inhabitants is the state capital Denver, which is also the economic and cultural center of the state. Around 2.5 million people live in Denver’s catchment area (), distributed among other things in the other major cities of Westminster, Arvada, Aurora, Lakewood and Centennial. The rest of the country’s major cities also lie along a north-south line along the , of which the second largest, Colorado Springs Air Force Base, is the most important.
In the western part of Colorado, with the exception of Grand Junction (population around 58,000), there are only small towns, of which Durango, the mountain towns of Silverton and Ouray and the winter sports resort of Aspen are key tourist destinations. Cripple Creek and the two neighboring cities of Black Hawk and Central City have experienced an economic boom since gambling was legalized in 1991. On the other hand, many small towns in the , where in the Arkansas and South Platte River basins Fort Morgan, Sterling, La Junta and Lamar (each with around 8,000–10,000 inhabitants) are of some importance, are in steady decline. Nevertheless, the number of inhabitants in these cities is steadily declining.
- List of places in Colorado
The Constitution of Colorado, like most other US states, is based on three branches: the legislative (), the executive (), and the judiciary (). Executive power is exercised by a governor, elected every four years, whose government work is limited to a maximum of two terms. Accordingly, Democrat Bill Ritter, who was elected to office in 2006, could have run again in 2010, but decided not to do so. He was succeeded again by a Democrat with John Hickenlooper, the former mayor of Denver. Hickenlooper served two full terms and was barred from running in 2018. Jared Polis was elected as his successor.
- List of Governors of Colorado
- List of Lieutenant Governors of Colorado
The supreme body of the Colorado legislature is the General Assembly (), a bicameral parliament composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House of Representatives consists of 65 members who are elected every two years and are currently made up of 37 Democrats and 27 Republicans and one independent member. The Democrats also dominate the Senate, whose members are elected every four years, with a majority of 20:15 over the Republicans.
Bills must pass through both chambers before they can be submitted to the governor for signature. If he vetoes the bill, it must be passed by a two-thirds majority in both the Senate and the House of Representatives. In this case, the law goes into effect bypassing the governor.
The highest instance of the judiciary is the Colorado Supreme Court () whose presiding judge () is appointed by the governor for a maximum term of ten years. The Court of Appeal stands between this and the first-instance district courts. The governor also decides on their appointments.
Legalization of marijuana
In November 2012, a majority of a referendum voted in favor of legalizing the cultivation, sale and possession of small quantities of marijuana. Alongside Washington State, Colorado is the first state in the USA to allow recreational cannabis. Total revenue generated from the sale of cannabis and cannabis products was $996 million in 2015.
Abolition of the death penalty
Only one murderer has been executed since the death penalty was reinstated. In 2013, then-governor John Hickenlooper imposed a moratorium. The current governor, Jared Polis, is taking this further and on March 23, 2020 signed legislation abolishing the death penalty for crimes committed on or after July 1, 2020. Colorado is the 22nd US state to abolish the death penalty. He commuted the death sentences of the three prisoners currently on death row to life imprisonment.
After the incorporation of the Colorado Territory on February 28, 1861, leaders of the legislature, at a meeting on September 9 of the same year, approved the administrative division of Colorado into 17 counties () and an independent Indian reservation for Cheyenne and Arapaho im east of the country. The Rocky Mountains were then dominated by the neighboring counties of Summit (, 45,268 km²) and Lake (), each about the size of the Netherlands and occupying much of the Rocky Mountains and Colorado Plateau located in Colorado. They still exist in central Colorado today but have lost over 95% of their original territory, which stretched as far as the Utah border.
To the east, on the Plains plateau, from north to south, the counties of Weld, Arapahoe, Douglas, and Huerfano occupied the area up to the Kansas border. They, too, still exist by name today, but have lost so much of their eastern territory that they are now in central Colorado. There, the boundaries of Gilpin (named after Colorado’s first governor), Clear Creek, Park, Boulder, and Jefferson have changed little since their inception. Only Denver (1902) and Broomfield (2001) declared themselves independent boroughs (). Broomfield’s independence created the first county since 1913 and is now Colorado’s smallest county. Today the state consists of 64 counties.
Colorado, formerly one of the typically Republican-friendly states in the Rocky Mountains, has developed into a swing state with increasing urbanization in Denver. The Colorado Springs area, home to some giant churches and one of the most conservative cities in the country, is the main source of Republican strength. The Denver area, on the other hand, is Democratic-dominated. In the 2004 presidential election, Republican George W. Bush beat his Democratic challenger, John Kerry, by less than five percentage points. In the 2008 and 2012 elections, however, the Democrat Barack Obama was able to prevail relatively narrowly. In 2016, Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton again won the state ahead of Republican Donald Trump, and in the 2018 election, the Democrats won non-partisan voters in particular to clear majorities. In the 2020 election, Joe Biden finally won clearly with 15%. Since the 2020 Senate election, the Democrats have provided both senators.
- List of US Senators from Colorado
- List of members of the US House of Representatives from Colorado
Members in the 117th Congress
Culture and sights
The NPS lists four national parks in Colorado, of which Mesa Verde National Park is a United States World Heritage Site (as of September 30, 2017).
- Brown’s Canyon National Monument
- Canyons of the Ancients National Monument
- Chimney Rock National Monument
- Colorado National Monument
- Dinosaur National Monument
- Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument
- Hovenweep National Monument
- Yucca House National Monument
- Arapaho National Forest
- Grand Mesa National Forest
- Gunnison National Forest
- Pike National Forest
- Rio Grande National Forest
- Roosevelt National Forest
- Routt National Forest
- San Isabel National Forest
- San Juan National Forest
- Uncompahgre National Forest
- White River National Forest
Other Natural Monuments
The NPS identifies a total of 15 National Natural Landmarks and one National Recreation Area for Colorado, the Curecanti National Recreation Area (as of September 30, 2017).
The NPS maintains two National Historic Sites and four National Historic Trails in Colorado (as of September 30, 2017):
- Bent’s Old Fort National Historic Site
- Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site
- California Trail
- Old Spanish Trail
- Pony Express
- Santa Fe Trail
Colorado also has 15 National Historic Landmarks and 1,551 structures and sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places as of September 30, 2017.
Business and Infrastructure
Colorado is one of the most economically successful states in the USA. Real gross domestic product per capita (per capita GDP) – the most important indicator of wealth – was USD 58,422 in 2016 (national average for the 50 US states: USD 57,118; national ranking: 17). The unemployment rate was 2.9% in November 2017 (national average: 4.1%).
In the mountains, sheep, cattle and beef cattle are mainly raised. Maize, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, lucerne and fruit are grown. Viticulture is also practiced in Colorado. Since the consumption and cultivation of marijuana was legalized in 2014, hemp has also been increasingly cultivated since then.
Industry and Service
In the second half of the 20th century, it was mainly the industrial and service sectors that developed. Colorado’s economy is diversified across a wide spectrum. The concentration of companies in the field of scientific research and the high-tech industry is particularly remarkable.
Colorado has many universities.
Colorado is the largest molybdenum ore producer on earth. Colorado has large amounts of unexploited oil shale, but Colorado is particularly rich in shale gas. However, this is less profitable and more complex to promote and transport. Compounding the problem is the fact that the US has since imported natural gas from Canada, but the shale gas boom has made it by far the largest producer in the world, accounting for just over 20% of global natural gas production in 2016. Some of the largest oil and gas fields are in Colorado. These can now be exploited using new and cheaper extraction techniques.
The first major project is the Niobrara field, which contains both large amounts of shale gas and shale oil and is still in the development phase. Because of its size, the field spans four states, South Dakota, Wyoming and Nebraska. However, most of the production is in the northwest of the field in Colorado. Thanks to massive efforts, the field is now producing 287,000 barrels of oil and 4.6 billion cubic feet of natural gas (about 130 million cubic meters of natural gas) per day.
Colorado’s road network covers approximately 140,000 kilometers, of which almost 15,000 have been upgraded for long-distance traffic. These roads include, in particular, the expressways – without crossings, corresponding to German autobahns, which connect the most important centers of the state with each other over a length of 1535 kilometers.
By far the most important transportation hub in Colorado is the ring road around the greater Denver area, from which start in five cardinal points. For I-76, Denver is the starting point of a freeway running through Nebraska towards Chicago and the Great Lakes. Running north-south, I-25 is the fastest route between major cities along the . In the south it leads to New Mexico’s Albuquerque and further on to Mexico. The I-70, on the other hand, connects Colorado to the east and west coasts and meanders west of Denver through the Rocky Mountains. Due to the winding route, the speed limit on this mountain route is 65 miles per hour, in contrast to the general speed limit (75 miles per hour) on Colorado’s freeways.
The most important highways in the state are the US Highways 40, 50, 160, 385 and 550, which are the most important trunk roads off the highway network and connect to the . In the west they run mostly through the mountains and are often marked as scenic roads; including the (with his ), the and the . Next to Oregon, Colorado has the most .
The state of Colorado has around 4800 kilometers of rail network that covers most of the state and is not insignificant for the transport of goods. For passenger transport, on the other hand, it does not play a major role. Colorado is served by only two Amtrak long-distance pairs of trains daily, connecting Chicago with California. It travels through the northern part of the country on its way to and from San Francisco, where it serves the cities of Fort Morgan, Denver, Winter Park, Granby, Glenwood Springs and Grand Junction. It passes through the southwest corner of Colorado on its way from Chicago to Los Angeles, stopping in the small towns of Lamar, La Junta and Trinidad. Both routes are not linked to each other and not a single major city is connected to another by rail. With the realization of the tram project, at least the cities within the greater Denver region should be connected by rail in the foreseeable future.
Colorado also has some nostalgic steam trains from the 1870s and 1880s that are now operated as museum trains. The most important railways for tourism include those in the San Juan Mountains and those along the Coloradian-New Mexico border. Other tourist trains run on the at Georgetown and through the canyon below at Cañon City.
The largest airport in the United States in terms of area, is the aviation hub of the airline United Airlines. Colorado Springs is also connected to international air traffic with direct flights to the hubs of Los Angeles, Dallas and Minneapolis, while in the mountain region Grand Junction, Gunnison, Durango and Aspen in particular are important regional airports – with seasonal connections to long-distance air traffic.
The largest state colleges include the three campuses of the University of Colorado System (with the main campus in Boulder), Colorado State University, the Metropolitan State College of Denver, and the University of Northern Colorado. The most famous private universities in Colorado are the University of Denver and Regis University. Other universities are listed in the list of universities in Colorado.
- List of entries in the National Register of Historic Places in Colorado
- List of National Historic Landmarks in Colorado
- Carl Ubbelohde, Maxine Benson, Duane A. Smith: Ninth Edition. Pruett, Boulder 2006, ISBN 0-87108-942-4.
- Sandra J. Christian: Capstone, Mankato 2003, ISBN 0-7368-1574-0.
- David Muench, Marc Muench: Graphic Arts, Portland 2001, ISBN 978-1-5586-8847-6.
- Marshall Sprague: W.W. Norton, New York 1984, ISBN 0-393-30138-9.
- Official Colorado website
- Official Colorado tourism website (multilingual, including German)
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